Reverse Translate

Reverse Translate accepts a protein sequence and uses a codon usage table to generate a graph that can be used to find regions of minimal degeneracy at the nucleotide level. Each position in the resulting DNA sequence is shown as a group of four horizontal bars, each representing the probability that the position is occupied by a particular base. If one of the bars is longer than the "highlight" value you specify, the group of bars is highlighted. Use Reverse Translate to design PCR primers for amplifying genes that encode similar proteins.

Paste the raw or FASTA protein sequence into the text area below.

  • Highlight bases if their probability is at least

Enter the codon table you wish to use (in GCG format). The default codon usage table was generated using all the E. coli coding sequences in GenBank. It was obtained from the Codon Usage Database.