I.b.Transcription, Translation

  As I have mentioned earlier DNA forms the backbone for our lives, you should understand how it actually functions and helps the cell to function.

  Transcription is a process of making an RNA strand from a DNA template, and the RNA molecule that is made is called transcript. In the synthesis of proteins, there are actually three types of RNA that participate and play different roles:
a. Messenger RNA(mRNA), which carries the genetic information from DNA and is used as a template for protein synthesis.
b. Ribosomal RNA(rRNA), which is a major constituent of the cellular particles called ribosomes on which protein synthesis actually takes place.
c. A set of transfer RNA(tRNA) molecules, each of which incorporates a particular amino acid subunit into the growing protein when it recognizes a specific group of three adjacent bases in the mRNA.
   DNA maintains genetic information in the nucleus. RNA takes that information into the cytoplasm, where the cell uses it to construct specific proteins, RNA synthesis is transcription; protein synthesis is translation.
   RNA differs from DNA in that it is single stranded, contains Uracil instead of Thymine and ribose instead of deoxyribose, and has different functions. The central dogma depicts RNA as a messenger between gene and protein, but does not adequately describe RNA's other function.
   Transcription is highly controlled and complex. In Prokaryotes, genes are expressed as required, and in multicellular organisms, specialized cell types express subsets of gene. Transcription factors recognize sequences near a gene and bind sequentially, creating a binding transcription. Transcription proceeds as RNAP inserts complementary RNA bases opposite the coding strand of DNA. Antisense RNA blocks gene expression.
   Messenger RNA transmits information in a gene to cellular structures that build proteins. Each three mRNA bases in a row forms a codon that specifies a particular amino acid. Ribosomal RNA and proteins form ribosomes, which physically support the other participants in protein synthesis and help catalyze formation of bonds betweens amino acids.
   In eukaryotes, RNA is often altered before it is active. Messenger RNA gains a cap of modified nucleotides and a poly A tail. Introns are transcribed and cut out, and exons are reattached by ribozymes. RNA editing introduced bases changes that alter the protein product in different cell types.
  The genetic code is triplet, non-overlapping, continuous, universal, and degenerate. As translation begins, mRNA, tRNA with bound amino acids, ribosomes, energy molecules and protein factos assemble. The mRNA leader sequence binds to rRNA in the small subunit of a ribosome, and the first codon attracts a tRNA bearing methionine. Next, as the chain elongates, the large ribosomal subunit attaches and the appropriate anticodon parts of tRNA molecules form peptide bonds, a polypeptide grows. At a stop codon, protein synthesis ceases. Protein folding begins as translation proceeds, with enzymes and chaperone proteins assisting the amino acid chain in assuming its final functional form. Translation is efficient and economical, as RNA, ribosomes, enzymes, and key proteins are recycled.
  A much detailed explanation could be found in the book 'Molecular Biology' by David Freifelder. I suggest you read this book if you interested in detailed knowledge about transcription and translation.

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G.Osuri, 2003. This is an information tutorial and can be freely distributed along with permission. email: g_osuri@hotmail.com